This turns out to be a good instinct for me to have since the code snippet I usually find will be far better than I could do on my own. This automatically converts types, which is convenient if you want an integer and the user accidentally gives you one. With this approach, it's a simple change to use a list comprehension instead of a for loop and, like None, an empty list is also False. On the flip side, str can convert anything to a string. This will get us through simple cases like menu choices, but what if we wanted a float or a real number? This is probably a good time to provide a few words of caution. Plus, you can get a great deal of personal satisfaction and even, dare I say it? This makes validation easier, because you know what type it will be and thus which operations you can apply to it. Careless typing often produces strings like 'jOHN sMith' caps lock or phone numbers resembling ''. Other, more graphical methods are available, without getting too carried away, such as Xdialog , Gdialog part of gnome-utils or Kaptain. For a complete list of these and much more, I highly recommend the Python 2. Any extra input will just get tacked on, so we will never lose any characters. As you've probably guessed, there are also 'center n ' and 'ljust n '. Other ways to help users enter information include spinners, pick-lists and combo-boxes, but you already knew that. This is only one of some really handy attributes you can use to layout reports. Here's an example from Python 2.
This will get us through simple cases like menu choices, but what if we wanted a float or a real number? For a complete list of these and much more, I highly recommend the Python 2. I have also chosen to make the validators themselves positive assertions for two reasons: The first is that we are checking for two different exceptions, Type and Value. Other ways to help users enter information include spinners, pick-lists and combo-boxes, but you already knew that. Depending on the circumstances, it might be preferable to perform all the validations and return a list of error messages, so the user can fix them all at once. For example, if you ask for a simple 'y or n' response, your user may cheerfully type in their name - or their lunch order, or nothing at all - and your program will break. Needless to say, users hate typing them in and they hardly ever look right. My first instinct when I need something like this is to copy someone else's work by mining Google - especially Google Groups. Worse, the user may attempt to impose a format on it as they enter it. Now, with our new formatting function, they're a piece of cake. Other times they might stretch out to 15 digits or more for international calling. Sometimes they are only 2 or 3 digits long if you are behind a corporate PBX system. Again, have a look at the Python 2. This is probably a good time to provide a few words of caution. Showing the preceding sentence to veteran programmers may cause them to collapse on the floor giggling helplessly. Checking the Content of String Objects Programming languages usually include methods for checking of this kind and Python is no exception. Consider one of our first challenges as stated above: First, let's filter any "extra" formatting characters we let the user type in: Most users are contented, docile creatures who like to have their belly rubbed, but you will encounter rogue types bent on destruction. Some other handy attributes of this kind are: On the flip side, str can convert anything to a string. Other operators you'll find useful are long and float. Some other countries have similar post codes. Postal Codes In case you are blessedly unfamiliar with Canadian postal codes, they look like this:
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