Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution. Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". Manchester lost , jobs in manufacturing between and Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix Chester and Eboracum York were protected from the Brigantes. A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture. He was a diligent puritan , turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in Many of the great public buildings including Manchester Town Hall date from then. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.
There were no fatalities, but it was one of the most expensive man-made disasters. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton. Industrial Revolution[ edit ] Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Charles Worsley , who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: Many of the great public buildings including Manchester Town Hall date from then. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city. The Bridgewater Canal , Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in , bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of , arson in , a series of explosions in , and two bombs in The Peterloo Massacre of resulted in 15 deaths and several hundred injured Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels ' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in ; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,  and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library. The economic school of Manchester capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from onward. Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture. The metre tall, storey Beetham Tower , completed in , is the tallest building in the UK outside London and when finished was the highest residential accommodation in Europe. For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company 's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop 's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons ; and just outside the city in Trafford Park , engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them. Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement. A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century. Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe , and by late air raids were taking place against non-military targets. On Saturday 15 June , the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA carried out the Manchester bombing , the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. Mamucium The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England ; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell. The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing,  and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.
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